Communication is a key of socialize

If you want to be known with other people, you have to socialize. And the main thing to socialize is a communication. A constant communication could make you fame, off course with the right step. Learn the way of communication here!

Practice your skill of communication

If you want to be a good communicator, the main thing you have to do is practice! Practice and practice!

Learn the right way of communication with suitable theory

Theory of communication is one thing you should learn if you want to be a good communicator

Learn Various model of communication

Communication has a lot of model. Learn it and use in the good timing.

Understanding context of communication

In some way, context of communication is a main thing about communication. Learn it!

November 10, 2009

The way of thinking speech arrangement

1. Timeline
Ideas are collected together by it’s relationship with the time. Suitable for informative speech that you want to ilustrate event or process which happen in some rarely time. The pattern is made based on time line.

2. Space
Fit for use if you want illustrate some place or object.
Eg : You speech about your journey to Southeast Asia
a. First you start from Bali, Indonesia
b. Second destination in Singapura
c. And the last destination to Malaysia

3. Topic
Is a topical pattern, which mean some ideas that collected by some conventional classification. Fit for informative speech. Here, topic is divided to sub topic or clear parts, based on topic reachable itself. Eg :
The power of government
a. Legislative controlled by congres
b. Executive controlled by President
c. Judicative controlled by Pengadilan

4. Kausal
Is a pattern that arrange content by hubungan sebab akibat. This causal relationships is related with why some events happen, which is factor that causing some effects. Fit for use if you want to making sure the audience about something that make other thing happen. In first section of speech, you can explain something that become the reason and in second section show the effects. Eg :
A. There is three main reason of hipertency :
a. A lot of salt improving tekanan darah
b. An ooverweight
c. Worried too much
B. There is three main effects of hipertency
a. gelisah improving
b. Heart improving
c. Short breath improving

5. Pattern of solve the problem
In this example you will talk about the problem that faced by a group, then giving an advice. Fit for persuasive speech. With this speech you can suggest to some problem that audience faced. In first section you explain the factor that make that problem appear, then in second section you show your suggest of solution about that problem. Eg :
A. Nuclear reactor making a lot of problem
a. The Kebocoran can put employer and society community life in danger.
b. Put environment in danger
B. Solution
a. Stop nuclear reactor developing
b. Close the nuclear reactor that already operate
c. Developing some alternative source

6. Motivated sequence
Developed by Alan H. Monroe. This pattern have 5 part : Care, need, satisfied, visualisation, and action. Can be used for all type of speech, is it informative or persuasive. Motivated sequence is a variant from problem solving with push to problem telling need and the satisfication of solution developing.
The last two parts in motivated sequence, visualisation and action only can be used in persuasive speech. Visualisation is aimed to explain the condition wich will happen, help the audience look to them self and feel satisfied from their act, proposing a plan which will give a satisfication to audience and in one time also asking for their agree. This is the complete explanation.

a. Care
The first step that you have to do in speech is to make audiences focus to the topic which will shown. If this step can be done well, so the audience will get excited and listen to what you say.

b. Need
You can show the need to audience. Make audiences realize about something that have to do or learn. This can be done by this way :
1) Telling them about need or problem that appear
2) Ilustrate that need with specific example
3) Make realizing of student become stronger and stronger
4) Show that the problem have a lot of effect in audiences life

c. Satisfied
Show your solution to satisfied the need that you show first. If you do this step well, the audience will believe with your information. There is some way to do that :
1. A statement and also example about what you want to audiences believes and do.
2. A statement from how or why you want audience to learn.

d. Visualisation
Stronger of audience feeling and belief. Help the audience to imagine about the situation that will they face if the need that you suggest can be satisfied. There is 2 way :
1) Show the benefit that audiences will get if your ideas is executed
2) Show the audience lost if they don’t do your suggest

e. Action
The last step is say to the audience exactly what they have to do in order to make the audience need can be done.

If your speech is informative purpose, you can stop in satisfied. Is your speech is persuative purpose in order to make believe become stronger. You have to reach visualisation step. And if your speech is persuative purpose to changing behavior, so you have to reach action step.


The systematic of writing Speech’s script
A. The way of thinking speech arrangement
B. The way of thinking speech arrangement (additional)
C. Draft
D. Arrange Model


Audit communication is a evaluation that done by deep about communication process and components, in interpersonal, work group, organization, or even mass.

And audit communication has following purpose, decided overload or under load. Judge information quality. Measure relations quality. Recognize the potential web. Identified Bottlenecks. Draw the patterns, climate, and culture of communication. Give recommendation to change company communication system.
Audit communication is better to do in this following time. First, if there is some program that lost it’s credibility. Then, if there is a need evaluation for a program. Then, if organization change is planned. And also if there is a worry between employers, and communication channel didn’t function much. And the last if there is some gossip that become controversy.
In audit of communication, there is 7 technique and method to be done. Interview, self-completion questionnaire, group discussion, Network analysis, communication diary, monitoring, critical incident technique.
And there is also some aspect that we need to think in audit of communication. That aspects is, the condition of communicator and communicant. Media / communication channel. Message / Information. Feedback. Communication environment ( time, place, structure, climate, etc )

November 02, 2009

Schema Theory

Theories of individuals as cognitive misers transport these ideas to our understanding of individual information processing. That is, theorist in this tradition look at the forms and structures that help individual process a wide variety of information about the social world in an efficient way. As Wicks (1992 : 119) states, "Schema Theory suggest that people are active are active processor of information and that schematic thinking derives from the need to organize thinking for the purpose of cognitive economy." Though a variety of theories have been developed to explain this process (e.g, theories of plan, scripts, episodes), we use schema theory as one representative way of looking at these concept (But see Mandler, 1984, for a much more specific interpretation of schema theory concept). In other words, as cognitive misers, we use a schema theory as a template for understanding this entire family of cognitive theories. There are two important issues to consider in understanding schema theory. The first issue is a first question of what and the second is a question of how or, in Arbib, Conklin, and Hill's (1987) words, the distinction between the representation and process aspects of schemas. That is, theories have considered both the content of cognitive schemas and the way those schemas are activated as we attempt to understand and behave in social world.

Schema theory in the communication discipline

The concept of schema theory are implicated in all our communicate behavior, for if we are to proceed in a variety of communication situations we must either draw on existing schemas for understanding or, perharps, develop new schemas that will be used in subsequent interaction.

Finally, research in mass communication has also relied on the concept of schemas for understanding communication processes.As Wicks (1992) argues, we have schemas not only for social interaction with others but also for various media channels and programmings.

Source : Katherine Miller : 2001

Communication Theories

Theories Of Communication Processes
-Theories Of Symbolic Organization
Schema Theory
Attribution Theory
Narrative theory
-Theories Of Message Production
Constructivist Theory
Action Assembly Theory
Planning and Goals
-Theories of Message Processing
Three Classic Model Of Persuasion
1. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
2. Theory of Reasoned Action
3. Social Judgement Theory
Elaboration likelihood model
Inoculation Theory
Problematic Integration Theory
-Theories of Discourse and Interaction
Speech act theory
Coordinated Management Of Meaning Theory
Communication accommodation Theory
Expectancy violation and interaction adaptation theories
-Theories Of Communication in developing relationships
social penetration theory
Uncertainty Reduction theory
-Theories Of communication in Ongoing Relationships
Relational systems theory : The palo-alto group
Theories of relational dialectics

October 21, 2009

Interactional Model

This model think that human is an active person. Symbolic quality is contained in interactional word, so this model is clearly different with an ordinary interaction which signed by stimulus - response trade. This model is developed by George Herbert Mead who have a student named Herbert Blumer. Symbolic interaction perspective is known more in sociology, although is still have some influences in other discipline.

This model think that people as a communicator is active, reflective, and creative , interpret, shows complicated act and hard to be predicted. In this context, Blumer show 3 premise which become the basic of this model. Firstly, Human act based on the meaning that individual give to their environment. Second, that meaning has direct relation with social interaction which individual do to their social environment. And the last but not least, the meaning is created, resisted, and changed by interpret process which individual done in order to keep in touch with their social environment.

Source : Deddy Mulyana, 2000

October 18, 2009

Gudykunst and Kim's Model

This model actually is an intercultural communication model. This model basely is suitable for face to face communication, especially for 2 people. Because there is no 2 person which have culture, social culture, and psycho culture precisely similar.

This model assume 2 persons which equal in communication, each of them as a sender and also a receiver, or both of of them encoding and decoding. Because of that, we can see that messages from someone is a feedback from the other one. Messages / feed back between them is represented by a line from someone's encoding to another decoding. The two lines shows that every one of us go and won't do anything until we get the feedback.

The aspect that completing this model environment. Environment persuade us in encoding and decoding a messages.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 16, 2009

Tubbs Model

It's all about 2 person communication. This model is suitable with concept of communication as a transaction, which assume that 2 communicator as a sender and also receiver a message. When we talk (send a message) actually we also observe our partner's behavior and we reacts with that. The process is a reciprocal and also spontaneous and simultaneously. The messages in this model could be verbal and non verbal. Could be intention and incidental. The Channel is a sensory. There is two type of noise in this mode : technical and semantic. Technical noise is a factor which make receiver feel a change in information. Semantic noise is a giving different meanings about the representation which sent by source.

In short ways, although in that model communicator 1 and 2 gain same aspect : input, filter, messages, channel, and noise. That aspect still different in contents.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 15, 2009

Defleur's Model

It's a mass communication model. By inserting mass medium device and feedback device. It draw a source, transmitter, receiver, and destination as a departed phase in mass communication process.

The function of receiver in Defleur's model is to receive information and encode it.

According to Defleur, communication isn't meaning transfer. Communication happen by a set of component operation in some theoretical system, which the consequence is isomorphism between intern response to a set of symbol to source and receiver.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 14, 2009

Berlo's Model

Also known as SMCR model. Source, message, channel, and receiver. Source is the creator of the messages. Message is a translation of idea to a symbolic code. Channel is a medium that bring the message. And the receiver is the target of communication.

According to this model, source and receiver is influenced by those factors : skill of communication, attitude, knowledge, social system and culture. Message is expanded based on element, structure, content, treatment, and code. The channel is about sensory.

The positive thing about this model is, this model could reach treatment mass communication, public, interpersonal, and written communication. This model is also heuristic. But, this model is also have weakness. This model think that communication is a static phenomenon. There is no feedback. And nonverbal communication is considered as unimportant thing.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 13, 2009

Gerbner's Model

This model is a lasswell's model expantion. It consist from verbal model and diagramatic model.

Verbal Model : someone perceives an event and reacts in a situation through some means to make available material in some form and contects conveying content of some consequence.

Diagramatic Model : Someone perceives an event and send some messages to transmitter which will send a signal to receiver. In that transmission, the signal facing noise and become SSSE to destination.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

Westley and Maclean's Model

This model say about 2 context, interpersonal and mass communication. And the point of difference between interpersonal and mass communication is the feedback. In interpersonal, the feedback is direct and fast. In the mass, the feedback is indirect and slow.

There is 5 parts in this model on interpersonal communication : object orientation, messages, source, receiver, and feedback. Source (A) see object or some activities in their environment (X) and create a message about that think (X')which sent to receiver (B). In that turn, the receiver will send a feedback about message to the source.

In mass communication this model have another parts, it's called gate keeper (C) or opinion leader which receive the message (X') from source of mass media (A) or by seeing object orientation (X1, X2) in his environment. And then, the gate keeper is creating their own messages (X")which sent to a receiver (B). So, the filter process is formed.

There is some important concept from this model : feed back, the differences and similarity between interpersonal and mass communication, and opinion leader which become an important thing in mass communication. This model is also separated purposive and non purposive messages.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 12, 2009

Newcomb's Model

Theodore Newcomb (1953) see communication from the social psychology view. This model also known as ABX model. This model draw that someone (A) sending information to the other one (B) about something (X). That model assume that A's orientation to B and to X is depend to each other. And three of them is a system which content four orientation.

1. A to X orientation
2. A to B orientation
3. B to X orientation
4. B to A orientation

In this model, communication is a normal and effective way which make people can orient their self to their environment. It's a intentional communication act model of 2 people.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

Schramm's model

Communication is considered as an interaction, with both sides who encode - interpret - interpret back - transmit - and receive the signal. Schramm think that communication always needs 3 element : source, message, and destination. Source can encode and destination can decode message, based on their own experience. If both of circle have an an equal territory, so communication is an easy thing to do. Greater territory will affect on field of experience which belong to both sides. According to schramm, every one in communication's process is clearly become both encoder and decoder. We constantly encode back signs from our environment, interpret that signs and decode something as a results. Backward process in the model is called feed back, which playing an important rule in communication. Because it let us know how do our message being interpreted.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 08, 2009

Shannon and Weaver's Model

This model is talking about the problem to send a message based on their accuracy level. This model presupposes an information source who create a message and send it by some channel to a receiver who recreate that message. In other words, this model assumsion that information source create some message to be communicated from available set of messages. Transmitter changes messages to signal which suitable with the used channel. Channel is a medium which sending a sign from transmitter to receiver. In conversation, information source is a brain, the transmitter is voice which create a signs that transmitted by air. The receiver is a hearing mechanism and reconstruction a message from a signs. The destination is a receiver's brain. And the important concept from this model is a noise.

This model think that communication is a static phenomenon and one way. And, this modelis too much complicated.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

Lasswell's Model

Lasswell's model is a verbal saying, which say about who says what in which channel, to whom with what effect?

This model say about communication process and it's function to society. Lasswell said 3 function of communication. The first one is a environmental monitoring. Then a relation from every departed society which give a response to environment. And the last one is a social transmission from one generation to the other.

This model is often used in mass communication. Who to gate keeper, says what is a source to analyze about the message. In which channel to media. to whom to audience. And with what effect is about the effect which is made by a message of mass communication to reader, listener, etc.

This model is also given a critic, because this model seems think that communicator and the message is always on purpose. This model is also though that is too much simple. But, just like the other good model, this model focus on important aspect in communication.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 07, 2009

Aristoteles Model

This is the most classical model in communication. And also is called as a rhetorical model. This model make a formula about first verbal communication model. Communication happen when a speaker speak their messages to listener in order to change their behavior. This model have 3 basic part of communication. Speaker, message, and listener.
This model is about speech. Especially speech to persuade people. According to Aristoteles, the persuade can be reached by the one person that people believe. The argument, and by playing listeners emotion.
But, this model have many weakness. The first one is communication is considered as a static phenomenon. And the other weakness from this model is, this model doesn't mention nonverbal aspects in order to persuade.
But, although this model have many weakness, but this model in the future will inspire a lot of communication scientist to find another models in communication.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

Stimulus - Response Model

This model is the most basic model in communication. This is show communication as an action - reaction process. This model think that verbal words, inverbal signs, pictures, and actions will stimulate other people to give the response in some ways. You can also say that this process is a moving information or ideas. This process could be interactive and have a lot of effect. Every single effect could change another act of communication in the next level.
This model ignore that communication is a process. In other words, communication is considered as a static thing.

Source : Deddy Mulyana : 2000

October 06, 2009

Various Definitions of Communication and Controversy within

Before we trying to know about communication, the very first thing that we should know is the definitions. But in communication, the definitions isn't as easy as the other. There are a lot of definitions about communication from different people and different culture. Well, check this out.
Communication is a process where people (communicator) sending stimulus in purpose to change or to make behavior of other people.( Hovland, Janis & Kelley : 1953 )
Communication is a process sending information, idea, emotion, ability, etc. By using symbols such as words, pictures, numbers, etc. ( Berelson dan Stainer : 1964 )
Communication basely is a process which explain who, says what, in which channel, to whom, with what effect. ( Lasswell : 1960 )
Communication is a process which make something which belong to one person become belong to 2 persons or more. ( Gode : 1959 )
After read that following definition, then there is a question in my mind. Why is there much various kind of definitions? Can you believe that in 1976, Frank Dance and Carl Larson collected 126 definitions of communications? Why do that happen? There are some reason that could answer these questions although still unclear in some points.
Dance found 3 dimensions that lead definitions of communication. ( Deddy Mulyana : 2001 ) First dimension is level of observation . And the second one is intentionality. And the last one is norm adjustment. That 3 dimensions, directly and indirectly become the main reason for this controversy.

September 28, 2009

Hello world!!

Hello world, let me introduce this blog. This blog is dedicated to all communication students who still studying in their colleges. This blog trying to help you to find all about communication knowledge which very important today. Maybe, this blog isn't as good as professor made or director made, but i guarantee you that this blog is ready to use and could become your reference in case to learn more about communication and all about it.
SO guys, have fun with htis blog....
see ya!!