Communication is a key of socialize

If you want to be known with other people, you have to socialize. And the main thing to socialize is a communication. A constant communication could make you fame, off course with the right step. Learn the way of communication here!

Practice your skill of communication

If you want to be a good communicator, the main thing you have to do is practice! Practice and practice!

Learn the right way of communication with suitable theory

Theory of communication is one thing you should learn if you want to be a good communicator

Learn Various model of communication

Communication has a lot of model. Learn it and use in the good timing.

Understanding context of communication

In some way, context of communication is a main thing about communication. Learn it!

June 26, 2014

Various Type of Mass Communication Model | Solocom

This post we will talking about Model in Mass Communication.
Models in a communication can be considered as a depiction of a reality that is made as simple as possible. By studying a model of communication, according to DeVito there are several advantages that can be obtained, namely:
1. Models have organized the function, meaning that the model can sort and menghhubungkan one system with lainnyaserta system can provide a comprehensive picture
2. Models can help explain something to present information in a simple, that is to say without the model, such information can be very complicated.
3. With the possible models of the expected outcome or course of an event.

The model can be used as a statement dasare for the various alternatives and help create a research hypothesis. Below is a communication model that appeared in the decade beginning around 1940 and 1950.
A. Phase One Communications Model (one-step flow of comm.)

Mass Media Communicant

B. Two-Stage Model of Communication (two-step flow of communication)

Source of Communication Messages MedMas Opinion Leader KomKan

- Individuals who are active in seeking information only opinion leaders
- Limiting the analysis process, since the process occurs in two stages komunikais or more
- The opinion leaders depend on the mass media
- Ignoring audience behavior, based on timing of the introduction of new ideh
- A variety of communication channels play a role in the acceptance phase of innovation and decision-making
- There is a separation between the public community opinion leaders with followers.

C. Many Communication Model Phase (Multi Step Flow of Comm)

Sources communicant communicant communicant MedMass

D. SR Model

Stimulus Response Message

E. Uses and Gratification Model
Basic assumptions:
- Audience is considered active
- Initiative and the selection of media on audiences
- The mass media compete with other sources
- Focusing on the use of media content

Various social factors Harapan2 Needs Gratification Needs
Psychological The Media Against Hope
Consequences of Mass Media Childbirth raises another

Various Type of Communication Theory

24. Functional Theory

With the advent of constructivism in psychology, in recent years it became clear that language learning is well developed under the notion of cognitive and memory structures.

Language researchers began to notice that the language is a manifestation of cognitive abilities and effective way to explore the world, to connect with others and also to themselves sendirisebagai human purposes.

Moreover kaedah generative proposed under the auspices of nativism that is abstract, formal, explicit and logical, although the rule was more emphasis on language form and not at the level that is more functional than the established meaning of meaning formed from social interaction.

a. Cognition and language development

Piaget's research illustrates that the interaction between children and their environment with complementary interaction between the development of perceptual cognitive capacities with their language experience. The study deals with the relationship between cognitive development in the first language acquisition. Slobin states that in all languages, learning the meaning depends on cognitive development and more development sequence is determined by the complexity of the meaning of the complexity of the shape. According to him there are two things that determine the model:

1) On a functional basis, followed by the development of the capacity development of communicative and conceptual scheme operates in conjunction with the inner conjunctions.

2) In the formal principle, followed by the development of perceptual capacity and information processing that works in conjunction and inner schemes grammar.

b. Social Interaction and Language Development

Lately more and more evident that the language functions develop well beyond the cognitive mind and memory structures. Here it appears that the social constructivist perspective emphasizes functional. Language is essentially used for interactive communication. Therefore suitable for the study is the study of the communicative function of language, pragmatics and communicative function assessed with any variability.

25. The Social Learning Theory (Bandura)

Bandura learning theory (Albert Bandura: 1925) is a social learning theory or social cognitive and self-efficacy showed the importance of the process of observing and imitating the behavior, attitudes and emotions of others. Bandura's theory explains human behavior in the context of reciprocal interaction behavior between kognitine continuous behavioral and environmental influences. Factors is the observation that proceeds in attention, memory, motor production, motivation.

It turns out that not all behavior can be explained by pelaziman. Bandura added the concept of social learning (social learning). He questioned the role of reward and punishment in the learning process. The traditional behaviorism explain that the words were originally no meaning, paired with a heap or object that has meaning (pelaziman classic).

26. Theory of operant conditioning (Skinner)

Skinner (1904-1990), consider the rewards and rierforcement an important factor role in learning. Skinner argues that the purpose of psychology is to predict the behavior control. This theory pda teacher gift or reward high value so that the child will be more diligent. This theory is also called operant conditioning. . Operans conditioning is a process of strengthening operans behavior that can lead to such behavior can be repeated again or disappear at will.

Operant conditing stimuli.Bila not guarantee a response to stimuli showed no teacher can guide the students to direct their behavior. Teachers have a role in controlling and directing students in the learning process in order to reach the desired goal.

Skinners learning principles are:

- The results of the study should be immediately notified if any student be corrected if it is given a booster.

- The learning process should follow the rhythm of the study. The subject matter is used as a module system.

- In the process of learning more emphasis activity itself, the punishment is not used. For environments that need to be changed to avoid punishment.

- The desired behavior is rewarded educators and gifts should be given to use of a variable ratio schedule of reinforcer.

- In learning to use shapping.

27. Theory of Classical Conditioning (Pavlov and Watson)

According to the theory of conditioning (Ivan Petrovich Pavlo :1849-1936), learning is a process of change that occurs because of the requirements (conditions) that then cause a reaction (response). To be someone that we should learn to give certain conditions. The most important thing in learning by conditioning theory is the existence of a continuous exercises. The emphasis in this theory is to learn things that happen automatically.

Adherents of this theory say that all human behavior. also none other than the result of conditioning. Namely results than exercises or habits of reacting to certain syarat-syarat/perangsang-perangsang that happened in his life.

The weakness of this theory is conditioning, this theory assumes that learning only happens automatically; liveliness and personal determination to disregard. The role of exercise / habits overstated. While we know that in the act and do something, man is not solely dependent on outside influences. Me or her own personal role in selecting and determining the actions and reactions of what it will do. The conditioning theory is right that we associate with animal life. In humans this theory we can only thank in particular learning things alone; for example in learning about skills (skills) and the habituation to certain small children.

June 25, 2014

Various Type of Communication Theory (part 4)

19. Cultural Norms Theory (Cultural Norms Theory)

The theory of cultural norms by Melvin DeFleur essence is that the mass media through the selective presentation and emphasis on certain themes, creating impressions on the audience where the cultural norms of the general topics that are formed by weighted in certain ways. Hence individual behavior usually guided by cultural norms regarding a particular thing, amak communication media will indirectly affect behavior.

20. Standpoint Theory

This theory explains that individuals experience, knowledge, and communication behavior largely shaped by the social group in which they are active (Wood, JT, 1982 in West, R., & Turner, LH, 2000). From this we can draw on systematic framework of identity-forming power of influence.

Culturally, Indonesia before independence and the early days of the nation's independence is guyub. Communality is also carried on the Islamic community collectives. We recognize the existence of the NU pesantren community, and Muhamadiyyah in the period before independence. After Suharto's policies in the 1980s era of closer to Islam, and Islamic collective community mushroomed. And the increasing number of collective community is then greatly influenced the lives of the citizens of Indonesia. It can be concluded that the influence of the global media has been reduced by the presence and influence of the collective community that has a high context culture.

21. Systematic Theory of Behavior (Hull)

Clark C. Hull follow the lead of Thorndike in his efforts to develop a theory of learning. Digunakanya principles similar to what is proposed by behaviorist stimulus-response basis and the presence of reinforcement.

Clark C. Hull put forward his theory, namely that a requirement or a "state driven" (by motive, purpose, intent, aspiration, ambition) must exist in a person who learns, before a response can be strengthened on the basis of a reduction in the requirement. In this case study the efficiency of the reduction depends on the level of satisfaction and motives that cause businesses to learn it by the responses of individuals who made it. Every object, event or situation may have value as an amplifier when it is associated with a decline to a state of deprivation (lack of) on the individual self; ie if an object, event or situation was able to answer an individual's needs at the time to respond.

The principle of reinforcement (reinforcer) using the whole situation that motivates, ranging from biological urge anyone who is a primary requirement until the results are rewarding for a person (eg: money, attention, affection, and high levels of social aspirations). So, the main principle is a need or motive must exist in someone before learning that happens; and that what is learned it should be observed by those who learned it as something that can reduce the power needs or satisfy their needs.

22. Theory Conectionism (Thorndike)

According to the theory of trial and error (trying and failing), every organism when faced with a new situation will perform actions that are not try blindly if in an attempt to try it by chance there are actions that also meets the demands of the situation , the act which happens to fit it then "held". Due to the continuous workout time used antuk do something that fits it more and more efficient.

Thus, according to Thorndike's learning through the process:

1) trial and error (trying and failing), and

2) law of effect; Which means that any behavior which means there is a satisfactory state (matched with the demands of the situation) will be remembered and studied with the best. While all behavior unpleasant repercussions will be removed or forgotten. This behavior happens automatically. Automatism in learning it can be trained with certain conditions, the animals also in humans.

Thorndike see that the organism (human being) as mekanismus; move or act only if there is a stimulant that affects him. The occurrence of automatism in learning caused by Thorndike's law of effect. In everyday life the law of effect can be seen in terms of reward or reward and also in terms of giving punishment in education. However, according to Thorndike more education is to play a role in terms of reward or reward and that is more advisable.

Because of the law of effect there was a relationship (connection) or the association between behavioral reactions that can bring something to the cost results (effect). Because of the connection between the reaction with the result that the theory Thorndike also called connectionism.

23. Theory of administration

Theoretician of the first and most influential administration is a French industrialist Henry Fayol ie in 1916, Fayol identified several management principles. These principles have been applied extensively in the design and practice of the organization and has a strong influence on the design of modern industrial and administrative organizations.

Administration theory was developed as a prescriptive guide to the appropriate use of industrial organization management rules and authority directly. Here is shown the strengths and weaknesses of the theory of administration. The basic principle of prescriptive administration theory makes the theory very pragmatic and can be applied to business organizations. Previously, because there is no universal management principles that can be applied uniformly to all circumstances of the organization, administration theory principles can be misinterpreted, contradictory and inconsistent in its use when dealing with the problems of different organizations. In addition, as will be discussed in depth at the end of this chapter, the principles of administrative theory, such as the principle of bureaucracy, often attributed as a form of rigid and insensitive to the needs of members of the organization.

Various Type of Communication Theory (part 3)

13. Inoculation Theory (Innoculation Theory)

Inoculation theory or theories injection is initially displayed by Mcguire's take the analogy of a medical event. People who are stricken with smallpox, polio injections. Given the vaccine to stimulate the body's defense mechanism. Similarly, people who do not have information about a case or not aware of the position on the matter, then it would be easier to dipersuasi or persuaded. A way to make it so that the effect is not easily subject to "inject" the reply argument (counterarguments).

14. Cultivation Theory (Cultivation Theory)

Cultivation Theory (Cultivation Theory) is one of the theories that try to explain the relationship between communication media (in this case television) with violence. This theory was put forward by George Gerbner, former dean of the Faculty (College) University of Pennsylvania Annenberg Communication, who is also the founder of Cultural Environment Movement, based on his research on the behavior of a television audience that is associated with a variety of materials existing television programs in the United States.
 Cultivation theory basically states that addicts (spectators heavy / heavy viewers) television excessive build confidence that "the world was very scary". This is due to their belief that "what they see on television" which tend to present many violent events is "what they believed to occur also in everyday life".

More complete about cultivation theory.

15. Theory Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy theory relates to organizations that are arranged in an ideal society. Bureaucracy is achieved through the formalization of rules, structures, and processes within the organization. Max Weber (1948) is known as the father figure of the bureaucracy. According to Weber, the ideal bureaucratic organization includes eight structural characteristics.

Bureaucracy offers many powerful advantages in implementing practice standards organizations, in addition he also could restrict members of organizations and individuals working in it.

16. Theory Transactional Analysis

The theory of transactional analysis is a major work of Eric Berne (1964), who wrote the book Games People Play. Berne is a renowned psychologist of Humanism group. The theory is a theory of transactional analysis therapy is very popular and is used in almost all areas of consultation in the behavioral sciences. Transactional analysis theory has become one of the fundamental theory of interpersonal communication.
The word always refers to the process of transactions in the exchange relationship. In interpersonal communication also known transaction. Which is exchanged messages of both verbal and nonverbal.

Transactional Analysis is actually aimed to examine in depth the process of transaction (anyone involved in it and what messages are exchanged).

In every human being, as quoted by Collins (1983), has three ego states. Basic attitude of the ego which refers to the attitudes of the parents (Parent = P. exteropsychic); attitude of adults (Adult = A. neopsychic); and ego child (Child = C, arheopsychic). The third attitude by all people (both adults, children, and parents).

17. Theory Expectation Value 

Phillip Palmgreen trying to overcome the lack of attachment elements that exist in the uses and gratification theory by creating a theory called expectance-value theory (theory expectation values).

In the framework of this theory, the satisfaction that you are looking for from the media is determined by your attitude towards the media - your beliefs about what a medium can give to you and your evaluation of the material. For example, if you believe that situated comedy (sitcoms), such as Bajaj Bajuri provide entertainment and pleasure you entertained, you will find satisfaction to your entertainment needs by watching sitcoms. If, on the other hand, you believe that sitcoms presents an unrealistic view of life and you do not like it like this you will avoid having to see it.

18. Diffusion of Innovation Theory

The most prominent diffusion theory proposed by Everett Rogers and his colleagues. Rogers presents the description is interesting about the spread of the process of social change, which is composed of the invention, diffusion (or communication), and consequences. Such changes can occur at the top of the group internally or externally through contact with change agents from the outside world. Contact may occur spontaneously or from an accident, or the result of the plan part of the outside agencies that vary in time, can be short, but it often takes a long time.

In the diffusion of these innovations, the idea may take many years to be able to spread. Rogers stated that the realization of the goals of diffusion research is to find a means to shorten this delay. Once established, the consequences of an innovation will have consequences - perhaps they are functioning or not, directly or indirectly, real or latent (Rogers in Littlejohn, 1996: 336).

Various Type of Communication Theory (part 2)

7. Theory Konstruktvisme

Jean Piaget and Leu Vygotski are two names that are always associated with constructivism. Experts constructivism states that people form their own version of reality, they doubled the variety of ways to determine and describe something to learn first and second language acquisition.

Learning must be actively constructed by learners themselves rather than described in detail by others. Thus the acquired knowledge gained from experience. However, in developing the student experience should have the opportunity to speak his mind, to test these ideas through experimentation and conversation or asked questions, as well as to observe and compare the phenomenon that is being tested with other aspects of their lives. In addition, the teacher plays an important role in encouraging students to pay attention to the whole process of learning and offer a variety of ways and approach to exploration.

8. Theory Nativism

The term nativism resulted from a fundamental statement that learning a language is determined by talent. That every human being is born already have the talent to acquire and learn language.

Chomsky in Hadley (1993: 48) which is the main character of this group said bahwasannya only is man the only creature that God can communicate through verbal language. In addition it is also very complex language therefore not possible to learn the language of human beings other God. Chomsky also states that every child born into the world has had lunch with what he calls "the tool of language acquisition" or LAD (Language Acquisition Device). Chomsky in Hadley (1993:50) argues that learning a language is not just a subset of special competence of learning in general. How to speak much more complicated than just fixing Stimulus-Response. Chomsky in Hadley (1993: 48) says that the existence of useful talent to explain the secret of the child's first language acquisition in a short time, because of the LAD. According to this class to learn a language is essentially just filling process detail the rules or the rules of language structure into the LAD are already available naturally in the human.

9. Theory Cognitivism

According to Piaget in Mansoer Pateda (1990: 67), one of the leaders of this group said that the complex structure of the language is not something given by nature and it's not something that is learned through the environment. The structure was born and developed as a result of the continuous interaction between the child's level of cognitive functioning and the environment has been available lingualnya.Struktur naturally. Changes or language development in children will depend on the extent of involvement of the child cognitive actively with its environment.

According to this school we learn due to our ability to interpret the event or events that occur in the environment.

Language learning process occurs according to a particular pattern of developmentally appropriate age.
These stages include:

a. Assimilation: the process of adjustment of new knowledge with the cognitive structure

b. Accommodation: adjustment processes of cognitive structures with new knowledge

c. Disquilibrasi: the acceptance of new knowledge that is not the same as that already known.

d. Equilibrasi: mental balancing process after a process of assimilation.

10. Cybernetic theory

The term cybernetics comes from the Greek (Cybernetics means the pilot). The term Cybernetics translated into Indonesian into cybernetics, first used in 1945 by Nobert Wiener in his book Cybernetics.

Cybernetics is the theory of control systems based on communication (delivery information) between the system and the environment and between systems, controllers (feedback) from the system to function with due regard to the environment.

Along with the development of information technology, which was launched by scientists from the United States since 1966, the use of computers as a medium to convey information rapidly growing. This technology is also used for education, especially teachers communicate peer relationships, looking for handouts (book teaching materials), describes the subject matter or training, even to evaluate student learning outcomes. The basic principle of cybernetic theory that respects both the 'difference', that one thing would have differences with others, or that something will change as the time passes. Learning is described as: INPUT => PROCESS => OUTPUT.

11. Dependency Theory (Dependency Theory)

Dependence on media theory originally stated by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin Defleur. Uses and gratifications theory such, this approach also rejects the initial hypothesis of a causal assumptions reinforcement. To overcome this drawback, the authors take a systems approach further. In their model they propose an integral relationship between the audience, the media. and the larger social system.

In line with what was said by the uses and gratifications theory, this theory predicts that the public depends on the information derived from the mass media in order to meet the needs of relevant audiences and achieve specific goals of the process of media consumption. However, it should be underlined that the audience does not have the same dependence on all media.

The second source is the dependence of social conditions. This model shows the media system and social institutions that interact with the audience in creating needs and interests. In turn, this will affect the audience to choose a variety of media, so it is not the source of the mass media that creates dependency, but social conditions.

To measure the effects of mass media on audiences, there are several methods that can be used, ie experimental research, survey and ethnographic research.

12. The Spiral of Silence Theory

The theory of the spiral of silence (the spiral of silence) presented by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann (1976), deals with the question of how the formation of public opinion. This theory explains that the formation of public opinion is determined by a process of interplay between mass communication, interpersonal communication, and perceptions of individuals about their opinions in conjunction with the opinion of others in the community.

June 24, 2014

Varioust Type of Communication Theory (part 1)

1. Theory Behaviorism

The flow figures are John B. Watson (1878 - 1958) which in America is known as the father of behaviorism. The theory memumpunkan attention on aspects that are directly perceived in language behavior and the relationship between stimulus and response to the world around him. According to this theory, all behavior, including follow-back (response) caused by the presence of the stimulus (stimulus). If the stimulus has been observed and is known then the reply was predictable motion. Watson also firmly rejected the influence of instinct (instinct) and awareness of behaviors. So any behavior can be studied according to the relationship of stimulus - response.

Born as a reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis introspeksionisme. Behaviorism want to analyze only the visible behavior only, which can be measured, described, and predicted. Later, the behaviorist theory known as the theory of learning, because according to them the behavior of humans except instinct is the result of learning. Learning means to change the behavior of organisms as environmental influences. Behaviorism did not want to question whether the human good or bad, rational or emotional; behaviorism just want to know how behavior is controlled by environmental factors. From this arises the concept of "human machine" (Homo Mechanicus).

2. Theory Humanism

This theory appears inspired by developments in psychology is the psychology of Humanism. As per the opinion expressed by McNeil (1977) "In many instances, communicative language Programmes have incorporated educational phylosophies based on humanistic Psikology or view the which in the context of goals for other subject areas has been called 'the humanistic curriculum"

Humanism in language teaching theory ever implemented in a curriculum with the term Humanistic language teaching curriculum implemented in North America in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The curriculum emphasizes the division of supervision and responsibility shared between all student learners. Curiculum emphasizes humanistic mindset, feelings and behavior of students with connecting material taught on the basic needs and the needs of the student life. This theory assumes that every student as learning objects have different reasons in learning the language.

The main purpose of this theory is to improve the ability of students to be able to thrive in the community. The deepest goal or purpose is to develop the whole human persons within a society. (McNeil, 1977)

3. Information Theory or Mathematic

One of the classical communication theory that greatly affect subsequent communication theories are mathematical information theory or theories. This theory is a form of elaboration of the work of Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver (1949, Weaver. 1949), Mathematical Theory of Communication.
These theories view communication as a mechanistic phenomena, mathematical, and informative: communication as the transmission of a message and how to use the transmitter channel and communication media. This is one clear example of the school of the process which saw the code as a means to construct a message and translate it (encoding and decoding).

This information theory point focuses attention on a number of signals passing through the channel or medium in the communication process. This is very useful in the application of electrical systems today are designing a transmitter, receiver, and code to facilitate the efficiency of information.

4. Agenda Setting Theory

Agenda-setting theory was introduced by McCombs and DL Shaw (1972). The assumption of this theory is that if the media put pressure on an event, then the media will affect the audience to consider it important. So what is considered to be an important medium, it is important also for the community. In this case the medium is assumed to have a very strong effect, especially as it relates to the assumption of the learning process rather than by changes in attitudes and opinions.

5. Uses and Gratification Theory (Usability and Satisfaction)

This theory was first introduced by Herbert Blumer and Elihu Katz (1974). This theory says that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. In other words, media users are particularly active in the communications process. Users media trying to find a good source of most media in the memenhi business needs. This means that users have the option of alternative media to satisfy their needs.

The basic elements of the theory underlying this approach (Karl in Bungin, 2007): (1) The basic needs of a particular, in interaction with (2) the various combinations between intra-and extra-individual, and also with (3) the structure of society, including the media structure, generating (4) personal mixing various individuals, and (5) the perception of a solution to the problem, which resulted in (6) various motives for seeking fulfillment or completion problems, which generate (7) differences in media consumption patterns and (differences in other behavioral patterns, which cause (9) differences in consumption patterns, which can affect (10) the combination of intra-and extra-individual characteristics, as well as would affect the (11) structure of the media and various political structures, cultural, and economic society.

6. Dependencies Effect Mass Communication Theory

This theory was developed by Sandra Ball-Rokeachdan DeFluer Melvin L. (1976), which focuses on the structural condition of a society that governs the likelihood of an effect of mass media. This theory departs from the nature of modern society, the mass media diamana considered as an information system that has an important role in maintaining the process, change, and conflict at the level of communities, groups, and individuals in a social activity. In summary study of the effects can be formulated can be formulated as follows:

1. The Cognitive, create or eliminate ambiguity, attitude formation, agenda-setting, the expansion of people's belief systems, confirmation / clarification of values.

2. Affective, create fear or anxiety, and increase or decrease the moral support.

3. Behavioral, activate or move or relieve, the formation of a particular issue or solution, or provide a strategy for reaching an activity and lead to generous behavior.

The theory of symbolic interactionism

Herbert Blumer and George Herbert Mead was the first to define the theory of symbolic interactionism.

Blumer expressed on the three main principles of symbolic interactionism, which is about the interpretation (meaning), language (language), and mind (thought). This premise will lead to a concept of 'self' and one's socialization to the 'community' bigger society.

Blumer filed the first premise, that human act toward people or Things on the basis of the meanings they assign to those people or things. That is, people act or behave towards other human beings are essentially based on the meanings that they wear to the other party.

For example, in the movie Kabayan, Kabayan figure would actually have different meanings passed away to whom or how to look at these figures. When Kabayan go to the big cities, the big cities such communities might interpret Kabayan as the village, the impression is tacky, tacky. Well, the interaction between people based Kabayan town with thoughts like this. And if in the village where he lived, there treated Kabayan society in a different way, with more friendly treatment. These interactions are based on the opinion that the figure is not Kabayan villagers were tacky.

Once people define a situation as real, its very real in its Consequences. The meaning of what is real for us is essentially derived from what we believe to be reality itself. Because we are convinced that it is real, then we believe it as fact.

In the same example, when we interpret as the plebeian Kabayan, then we consider the fact that it is the people of Kabayan plebeian. Vice versa.

The second premise is Blumer meaning arises out of the social interaction that people have with each other. Meanings arise from social interactions exchanged between them. Meaning not appear or attached to something or an object in nature. Meaning can not exist 'by nature'. Meaning is derived from the results of the negotiation process through the use of language (language)-the symbolic interactionism perspective.

Here, Blumer emphasized the importance of naming the interpretation process. Meanwhile Mead also believe that this is a symbolic naming basis for human society (human society).

When we refer to Kabayan was the plebeian language, the consequence is that we draw meaning from the use of language 'tacky' earlier. We derive meaning from language negotiation process about the word 'cheesy'. The meaning of the word 'tacky' does not have a meaning before he had negotiated in the social communities where the language is a symbol of life. Meaning of the word itself does not appear tacky, does not come naturally. The meaning of a language is essentially socially constructed.

Blumer's third premise is the individual's interpretation of symbols is modified by his or her own thought process. Symbolic interactionism describing thinking as a conversation with yourself. This thought process itself is reflexive. Well, the problem according to Mead was before humans can think, we need a language. We need to be able to communicate symbolically. Language is basically like software that can move our minds.

Way how people think a lot of practice is determined by the language. Language is not merely seen as a 'means of exchange of messages' per se, but the position of symbolic interactionism see language more as a set of ideas that are exchanged to other parties symbolically. Symbolic communication.

Different uses of language ultimately determine the differences in the way humans think. A simple example is the mindset of people who speak Indonesian is certainly different from the mindset of people who speak Javanese. Similarly, people who speak a different way of thinking will Sunda with people who speak English, German, or Arabic.

However, although the meaning of a language is determined by the context or social construction, often very individual interpretation of a role in the modification of the symbol that we are caught in the process of thinking. Symbolization in the interaction process is not categorically we receive from the social world, because we are basically in the process of digesting it back thinking ourselves according to the preferences of each.

Although socially we share the same symbols and language in the context of Kabayan and plebeian said earlier, not necessarily in our thought processes are equally interpret Kabayan and plebeian words with the same manner or with the intent that the other person. Everything is less influenced by individual interpretations of interpretations symbolization itself.

Purport to refer to the language. The process of thinking refers to the language. Language determines how the processes of meaning and thought processes. Thus, all three are closely interrelated. Interaction is the third major study that became the symbolic interactionism perspective.

At the level of the concept of communication, then it can simply be seen that communication is essentially a process of symbolic interaction between communicators. An exchange of messages (which basically consists of symbolization symbolization-specific) to other parties who want to communicate with them. This message exchange is not only seen in the context of the transmission of messages, but also viewed the exchange of ways of thinking, and more than that in order to achieve a process of signification.

Communication is the process of symbolic interaction in a particular language with a particular way of thinking to achieve a particular meaning as well, where all of terkonstruksikan socially.

Perhaps the greatest contribution to how we understand Mead's our way of thinking is Mead's conception of 'art act' (take the role of the other).

Once we understand the concept of meaning, language and thought are interrelated, then we can understand Mead's concept of 'self' (self). According to Mead's concept of self we actually see ourselves more to how others see us (imagining how we look to another person). The symbolic interactionism see this as a mental picture of the looking-glass self and that it is socially constructed.

In the conception of symbolic interactionism is said that we tend to interpret ourselves more to how people see or interpret ourselves. We tend to wait, to see how other people will interpret ourselves, how the expectations of ourselves. Therefore the concept we form of ourselves primarily as an effort to meet the expectations or the interpretations of others to ourselves.

We often try to position themselves into other people, and try to see how that person perspective when looking at ourselves. We sort of borrowed the glass eyes of others and in looking for us.

The concept of self is a function of language. Without discussion there will be no self-concept. Well, it's own self-concept in later formed or constructed through the concept of conversation itself, through language (language).

An example is how the process of communication and language games that take place in the relationship between two people, especially men and women. When they communicate by using a symbol MY and YOUR language, the concept of self that is formed is "he wants me in a formal status". Atu suppose symbolism is the language of ELO and GUE formed the concept of self is "he wants to consider me as a friend or friends only". And would be very different if a symbol used is the word I and YOU, the self-concept is more likely is "he wants me in the status of a more personal, more intimate" or refer to the concept of self that "we've been going together or going out" . Suppose. So, in a communication process, a symbol language used will be very influential to how konsepdiri that will be formed.

More broadly basically communication patterns or patterns of human interaction is indeed so. That is, more to the process of negotiation and transactional both between the two individuals involved in the communication process and more broadly how the social construction affects the communication process itself. The theory of symbolic interactionism to describe it clearly.


Griffin, Emory A., A First Look at Communication Theory, 5th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003

The Cultivation Theory

How many chances are you going to be victims of crime or criminality within the next week? Is 1: 10, 1: 100, or 1: 1000? According to George Gerbner The answer will depend on how often you watch television.

According to the Dean of the Annenberg School for Communication University of Pennsylvania and is also the founder of the Movement CulturalEnvironment, the television audience is in the category of heavy viewers (heavy viewers) tend to have the belief that this world is a world that is cruel and scary (mean and scary world). Kekekarasan they saw the television screen to make the audience get caught up in the paranoia that makes them always feel insecure and do not trust the people around them.

Agree with Marshal McLuhan, Gerbner argues that television has a dominant force in shaping modern society. However, unlike McLuhan who saw the medium as message, Gerbner believes that the power of television content appearing on the television show itself is seen as a real-life drama that arise at any time, for hours each day. As a result, television interpreted as a storyteller in public life. In other languages, see the television is able to describe anything that is important, and actually happen, in our society.

The consequence is that, when the media often broadcast shows containing violence (violence) then Gerbenr see a strong correlation between media and violence itself. The mass media, especially television plays a major role in creating fear in the minds of the audience to violence.

Gerbner we assume that television is filled with what he describes as a dramatic violence. In the definition of dramatic violence referred to as "the overt expression of physical force (with or without a weapon, against self or other) compelling action against one's will on pain of being hurt and / or killed or threathened to be so victimized as part of the plot . "

The definition includes harsh words, demeaning, and threatening. Which is certainly a lot of it is presented in the daily sinetrons graced our television screens. Even physical violence is also often found in a wide variety of cartoon shows like Tom and Jerry, Naruto, and the like. When all the impressions that contains more dramatized violence, according to Gerbner will cause traumatic effects in the minds of the audience.

Over two decades, much research in the U.S. found that many prime-time shows containing violence earlier impressions. Even on shows for children on Saturdays and Sundays. And all this time until now these studies still show a steady rate. That is, violence is still consistent as the material in the television show itself.

Gerbner distinguish television viewers in two categories, light viewer (viewer light) and heavy viewer (viewers weight). Lightweight audience is watching television in the span of about two hours each day. While classified as heavy viewers are watching television more than 4 hours each day. It is this difference that will affect the viewer's own behavior.

For mild spectators, the tendency is to simply watch television according to need. That is, they watch what you want to watch it, and if you feel like it or do not need a television with a pickle, then the TV will be switched off. Attendance in this category typically are not easily influenced by the content of television itself.

Another with the audience in the weight category of the audience. They usually sit in front of the television in a long enough period of time, even hours without caring whether they have seen television shows that whether they like it or they need or not. These are the usually the most easily affected by television content.

In the example earlier impressions violence, let alone the sort of criminal event shows Buser, patrol, crime scene, Sergap, and the like. When we are accustomed to and often watch the show of this kind, which arises according to Gerbner assumption is that we tend to be more fearful or wary of the world around us. We tend to become paranoid, afraid that we are going to experience a crime or become victims of criminal acts, as we often see in the earlier impressions.

If the show had been told the rampant crime in the city bus hold-up case, we usually become worried enough when going up or are on the bus. We become suspicious of every foreigner who does not know the bus. Or maybe the singers are there in the bus it is a ready-prepared criminals looking for opportunities to commit armed robbery, and so on. Heavy viewers have the opportunity to become more paranoid this kind.

In his research on cultivation differences, Gerbner behavior observed on four television to the audience, in relation to the issue of violence earlier impressions.

First, about the possibility of involvement in violence. The survey conducted showed that the light for the audience, they just feel they have the possibility of 1: 100 that they will be victims of violence or crime. As for the audience likely weight is 1: 10. Whereas a realistic figure based on an index of violence or crime index is only at the 1: 10,000. So, for the weight to the audience, they are more likely to be victims of violence or crime rather than an actual possibility. On the other hand, the children who used to watch the show of violence has the assumption that "it's okay if you hit someone else when we are angry or do not like about that person."

Second, afraid to walk alone during night. Women are generally more afraid to walk alone at night than men. However, according to Gerbner is more related to how often they spend time in front of the television. The audience is assumed to be consider excessive weight to the crime event, and take it ten times worse or more sinister than reality. Whereas in fact, more and more people are injured or killed on the streets as a result of being hit by vehicles rather than a crime.

Third, in view of police activity. For weight to the audience, they assume that 5 percent masyarakt we've dealt with the police or authorities. Light to the audience while only 1 percent bersumsi. World in the minds of many filled with heavy viewers an overview of the police, criminals, crime, and that they are not environmentally safe. That the police are always pointing a weapon at any time.

Fourth, distrust of others. Attendance typically have severe congenital always suspicious to others, especially strangers.

Gerbner's cultivation goes on to explain that role through two paths, ie mainstreaming and resonance.

Mainstreaming is the process by Grebner "blurring, blending, and bending" which penetrated into the self weight of the audience. According to Gerbner, through constant exposure in tayangannya, television has created a commonality (similarity or generality). Television makes the audience is homogeneous, which will make the audience (heavy) feel they share values, orientation, perspective, with other people.

Anything that comes on the television screen creates a general nature, and make it as a kind of shared experience. So for the audience, the television becomes a reference with the thoughts, beliefs, and values. Television becomes like 'a place to share experiences.'

Resonance. According to Gerbner, consistent audience watching television are more likely to feel the resonance (resonance). Basically everyone has been experiencing or become eyewitnesses to an act of criminal violence or events, whether it be robbery, holdup, mugging, or even a fight. They are then subjected to traumatic, although not severe. However, the television back then instrumental in the depiction of the experience in watching them. Television becomes a kind of resonance or repetition of the real experience of the audience earlier in life. The more often the person watching it will be more frequent violence resonance was experienced by him. Consequently the first to memories or thoughts of violence or criminal events in the real world that was once experienced, becomes more and continue to feel or remember your.

The hypothesis proposed by Gerbner's cultivation theory is that the more people watch television will eventually make the world feel more creepy.


Griffin, Emory A., A First Look at Communication Theory, 5th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003, p.380-389

Social Penetration Theory

Social penetration theory was popularized by Irwin Altman & Dalmas Taylor. General social penetration theory about how the process of interpersonal communication. Here is described how the process of dealing with others, there is a variety gradual process, in which a kind of adaptation process between the two, or in the language of Altman and Taylor: social penetration.

Altman and Taylor (1973) discusses how the development of closeness in a relationship. According to them, basically we will be able to get close to someone else as far as we can through the process of "gradual and orderly fashion from superficial to intimate levels of exchange as a function of both immediate and forecast outcomes."

Altman and Taylor likens humans like onions. That is the human nature to have some layer or layers of personality. If we peel the outer skin of onions, then we will find another layer of skin. Similarly, the human personality.

The outer skin layer of the human personality is nothing that is open to the public, what we usually show to other people in general, not covered up. And if we are able to look a little deeper layers again, then there is a layer that is not open to everyone, the more layers are semiprivate personality. This layer is usually only open to certain people, the closest example.

And the innermost layer is a private area, within which there are values, self-concept, conflicts unresolved, pent-up emotions, and the like. This layer is not visible to the outside world, by anyone, even from a lover, a parent, or any person nearby. However, this layer is most impactful or at least play a role in a person's life.

Our proximity to others, according to Altman and Taylor, can be seen from the extent of our penetration of the layers of personality earlier. By allowing others to penetrate the layers of personality that we have means that we allow people to get closer to us. The extent of one's close relationship can be seen from here.

In the perspective of social penetration theory, Altman and Taylor explain some of the translation as follows:

First, we more often and more quickly familiar in terms of exchange on the outermost layer of our selves. We're easier to talk or chat about the things that are less important in ourselves to others, rather than talk about the things that are more private and personal. The more we attempt to penetrate, then a layer of personality that we face will also be thicker and more difficult to penetrate. The more tries in a region familiar to the more personal, the more difficult it is.

Second, self-disclosure (self-disclosure) are reciprocal (mutual), especially in the early stages in a relationship. According to this theory, at the beginning of a relationship both parties will usually keen to open up to each other, and this reciprocal openness. However, getting in or getting into the private areas, such openness more generally slow, not as fast as in the early stages of their relationship. And also more not be reciprocated.

Third, the penetration will be faster in the beginning but will decrease as more and get into the deeper layers. There is no term "hit it". Familiarity it all requires a long process. And usually a lot easier in the interpersonal relationship collapse before reaching a stable stage. Basically there will be many factors that cause the stability of a relationship crumble easily, easily shaken. However, if it is able to pass through these stages, usually the relationship will be more stable, more meaningful, and more durable.

Fourth, depenetrasi is a gradual process with fading. The point is that when a relationship is not going well, then they will try getting away. However, this process is not explosive or explode at once, but is more gradual. Everything is gradual, and fading.

In social penetration theory, the depth of a relationship is important. However, the breadth was also equally important. That is possible in certain things that are personal so we can open up to someone close to us. But that does not mean we also can open up in terms of the other person. Maybe we could open in matters of romance, but we can not be open in the affairs experience in the past. Or the other.

Because there is only one area are open for others (eg, love affairs earlier), then this represents a situation in which the relationship may be deep but not widespread (depth without breadth). And the opposite, broad but not deep (breadth without depth) might like relationship "hello, apakabar?", A relationship that is mediocre. Is an intimate relationship in which both covers, in a broad and well.

Decisions about how close a relationship according to social penetration theory is determined by the principle of profit and loss (rewards-costs analysis). After an introduction to someone in principle we calculate the cost-benefit factor in our relationship with that person, or referred to in relationship satisfaction index (index of relational satisfaction). So also are others that apply when dealing with us. If the relationship is mutually beneficial then it is likely to continue will be greater, and the process of social penetration will continue to be sustainable.

Altman and Taylor refer to the thought of John Thibaut and Harold Kelley (1952) on the concept of social exchange (social exchange). According to them the concept of social exchange, a number of important things, among others, is a matter of relational outcomes, relational satisfaction, and relational stability.

Thibaut and Kelley stated that we tend to estimate what benefits will we get in a relationship or relationships with others before we do the interaction. We tend to calculate profit and loss. If we estimate that we will benefit a lot if we are dealing with such a person then we are more likely to foster further relationships.

In the early days of our relationship with the one we usually see the physical appearance or external appearance of the person, background in common, and many similarities or similarities to the things you like or liked. And it is usually regarded as a "profit".

However, in a relationship that is already very familiar often we do not even concerned about some of the differences between the two sides, and we tend to appreciate each of these differences. Because if we've seen that there are a lot of advantages than disadvantages that we get in a relationship, then we usually want to know more about that person.

According to social exchange theory, we actually had difficulty in determining or predicting what benefits we will get in a relationship or relationships with others. Because psychologically what is considered a "benefit" was different for each person. Social exchange theory put forward two general standards of what is used as comparisons or benchmarks in evaluating an interpersonal relationship.

The first, related to the relative satisfaction (satisfaction relative): how much of the interpersonal relationship can make us happy or unhappy it. Thibaut and Kelley calls this a level comparison.

Suppose we take the example when we talk with our loved ones by telephone. If we usually talk over the phone with our lovers in a matter of 1 hour, then 1 hour rate will be the benchmark of our satisfaction in the relationship. If it turns out we chatted for longer than 1 hour, let's say 1 hour 30 minutes then we would rate it more than satisfactory. But vice versa, if it turns out we are only talking less than 1 hour of our conversation we tend to think of the less than satisfactory. It is only one factor alone in assessing relationship satisfaction via the telephone. Factors other woods are also taken into consideration is the tone of voice, intonation, topics discussed, warmth talk, and so on.

In addition, the comparison of our level in terms of friendship, romance, family relationships, much influenced by how the history of our interpersonal relationships in the past. We assess the value of a relationship based on a comparison with our experience in the past. We tend to store our memories are good in interpersonal relationships with others to be used as a sort of comparison in our interpersonal relationships in the present and in the future. It is also very important benchmarks.

The second, by Thibaut and Kelley referred to as the comparison level of alternatives. At this stage we raise a question in our interpersonal relationships. We begin to question the possibilities of what lies beyond the relationship that is being undertaken. Questions include "What I would benefit more if I relate to other people?" Or question "Possibly the worst what would I get if I stay in touch with this person?".

The more interesting possibility that others outside the relationship then the instability in our relationship will be even greater. In this case the social exchange theory seem more akin to economic calculation on cost-benefit, indeed. Many people who mention this theory as a theory of ecomonic behavior.

Unlike the comparison level, comparison level of alternatives does not measure satisfaction. This concept does not explain why many people who remain in a relationship with someone who used to torture himself, often hurting.

So according to this theory, the key to a relationship that will remain is the extent to which built up a relationship that gives advantages, sejuah where the relationship is able to produce satisfaction, the extent to which these relationships remain stable, and the possibility that other, more interesting than the relationship that is being they live it.

The theory itself is inseparable from a number of critics. There are critics who claim that is often faster than an accident or a relationship is not able to be predicted in advance. There are times when we reluctantly had to quickly familiarize themselves with a particular person, and we do not have another choice. The theory is unable to explain this matter.

This theory also does not reveal the gender issues in the explanation. Though gender differences will greatly affect the issue of self-disclosure in interpersonal relationships. Even further study of Altman and Taylor revealed that the males are less open than females.

Altman and Taylor also almost consistently use cost-benefit perspective in assessing or measuring an interpersonal relationship. The first question that arises is to what extent we will be consistent in assessing which is an advantage and which one is a loss for us in the relationship? And the second question is to what extent we will continue to be selfish in a relationship with someone else?

We also often feel that in an interpersonal relationship that everything is not always about ourselves, about what benefits we get in the relationship. In fact we often feel happy that our friends get an advantage or exciting news. Although it is not happening to us, it turns out we are also able to participate happy. It is also not able to be explained in the theory.


Griffin, Emory A., A First Look at Communication Theory, 5th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003, page 132-141

June 20, 2014

Become The Great Communicator

If you can develop some course of this technique, you will dramatically improve your ability to relate to people from all walks of your life. Take time to observe the most social person in your life and you will see many of the above methods are applied. They have not done in a way that is rigid, they do it naturally and in a way that fits with the current situation.

For best results, chill out and let the flow of the techniques yourself naturally. Choose the techniques that best matches your personality and what your goals when interacting with people. Learn to feel the techniques are suitable or not suitable with the wide variety of characters and situations in accordance with your kepridadian.

When you successfully develop your ability to communicate with people, it will take you on a lot of new opportunities that are not available to you before. That's the power of effective communication skills.

14 Effective Way Of Communication

These are the 14 effective way of communication. Listen to it and maybe it will help your life. :)

1. Give the impression that you are keen to talk to them - Give them the impression that you would rather talk to them than anyone else on this earth. When you give them the impression that you are excited to talk with them and that you care about them, you make them feel more positive and confident. They will be open to you and are very likely to have a deep conversation with you.

2. Ask questions about their interests - Ask open questions that will make them talk about their lives and interests. Dig as much detail as possible so that it will help them gain new perspectives about themselves and their life goals.

3. Adapt to their body language and feelings - Feel how they are feeling at the moment by observing body language and tone of voice. From this vantage point, you can customize the words, body language, and tone of your voice so that they will respond positively.

4. Show a sense of approval: Tell them what you admire about them and why - One of the best ways to quickly connect with people is to be honest and tell them why you like or admire them. If the states are directly felt quite right, try the indirect statement. Both approaches can be equally effective.

5. Listen attentively to everything they say - Do not get too focused on what you will say next while they talk. Instead, listen to every word they say and responlah relevant as possible. This shows that you are actually listening to what they say and you are fully engaged in the atmosphere along with them. Also be sure to ask every time there is something that does not understand the things they say. You certainly want to avoid all the irregularities that may occur in communication if you want to develop a relationship with that person entirely.

6. Give them eye contact long - strong eye contact communicates to others that you are not only captivated by them and what they say but also shows that you can be trusted. When done in moderation, they are also going to assume you believe in yourself because of your willingness to meet them in person. As a result, people will naturally pay more attention to you and what you say.

7. Reveal yourself as much as possible - One of the best ways to gain trust someone is to reveal themselves openly as possible. Tells of the exciting events of your life or simply describe a funny example of normal daily life. When you tell about yourself, be sure not to mention things that deviate too far from their interests or even redundant. You can let them know more about you as time goes by.

8. Give the impression that you are both on the same team - Use words like "we, us" to immediately build a bond. When you use those words, you make it seem like you and they are on the same team, while others are in different teams.

9. Give them your best smile - When you smile at people, you convey the message that you like them and their presence brings you happiness. Smile at them will cause them to consciously want to smile back at you directly would build a relationship between you both.

10. Offers helpful suggestions - Recommend a place to eat that once you visit, you can watch movies, good people who they want to meet, books you read, career opportunities or anything else you can think of. Explain what is interesting from the people, places or things mentioned. If you give the idea enough to attract their attention, they will look for you when they need someone to help make decisions about what to do next.

11. Give them motivation - If the person you are dealing with younger or in a more difficult position than you, they might want to hear some words of motivation from you because you are more experienced or you seem to live a good life. If you want to have a healthy relationship with that person, you certainly do not want to look like you have it all while they are not. Reassure them that they can go beyond their problems and limitations, so they will expect you to make a delicious friend to talk to.

12. Shown with an energy level that is slightly higher than others - Generally, people want to be around people who will lift them up, instead of bringing them down. If you consistently have lower energy levels than others, they will naturally move away from you toward someone who is more energetic. To prevent this from happening, consistently show with voice and your body language that you have the energy level a little higher so that they will feel more energized and positive to be around you. But you also should not be too much, causing energetic people seem like helpless. Appropriate energy and passion to build their enthusiasm.

13. Mention their name in a way that is pleasing to the ear they are - a person's name is one word that has a very strong emotional for them. But it's not necessarily how often you say the name of a person, but rather how you say it. This can be helped by the way you practice saying the name of a person for one or two minutes until you feel a strong emotional. When you mention their name more touches than anyone else they know, they will find that you are the one that is most memorable.

14. Offer to undergo the relationship a step further - There are several things you can do to improve your friendship with someone: an offer to eat with them, talk over a cup of coffee, look at sporting events, etc.. Even if the person does not accept your offer, they will still be flattered that you want them to live the friendship to a deeper level. On the one hand, they will look at you because you have the courage to build friendships not expect instant friendship.

June 19, 2014

The Reason Why You Have To Develop Your Communication Skill

When you try to connect with the circles of people bigger, you need to ask these 5 questions yourself:
- Do you find similarities between you two?
- Do you make them feel comfortable?
- Do you make them feel understood?
- Is your relationship with clearly defined?
- Do they feel positive emotions as a result of interacting with you?

According to the survey, approximately 85% percent of success in life is directly related to the ability to communicate and build relationships skills.

This indicates that no matter how ambitious a person or how much they overcome their fears or how high the level of education, they still have a low probability to go further in their lives without effective communication skills are required in dealing with people.

And when I say relates to people, this is certainly not the people who naturally have similarities with your character, because it deals with people that do not require much effort or ability to communicate.

I am referring to the people that you like, but you often find it difficult to build a relationship with them because you are not sure what would you say or do.

It takes skill to expand the relationship of a small circle of people where you are currently heading a large circle of people you will meet. Such skills will catapult which guarantees your success in life.

Guide To Write The News

WRITE news could not arbitrarily, for example "critical reader understand". There are basic guidelines that should be adhered to write news in order to be good news, interesting, effective, and in accordance with the rules and code of conduct.

Many journalists - especially online media reporters - who looks "amateur" in news writing and confront the journalistic code of ethics. For example, news reporters containing the subjective opinion or "too obvious" favoring one party (the forming of public opinion / lead readers opinion) so tendentious.

Basic News Writing Guidelines
The following basic guidelines to write news pages extracted from Teacher Vision, "Basic Journalism".

Inverted Pyramid. Posts inverted pyramid style of journalism should (inverted pyramid). The top (beginning of writing) consists of only one or two laimat which contains important information; This is called a terrace (lead) news. The next section contains descriptive information or detailed information.

Summary of leads (news terrace conclusion), the core message, delivered at the very beginning.
Posts tone (Tone): Your job as a reporter is to report the facts and opinions of others and do not put your personal opinions into the news (leave your own opinions out of the story). If you want to opine or judge an event, there is a separate genre, namely opinion article and / or editorial (tajukrencana / opinion editorial).

Various Sources (Multiple Sources): More and more people are talking (interviewed) will make you increasingly good news. You can use a direct quote (direct quotes) or write it in your own words (paraphrase) is said to be a resource, but should always remember to identify the source (who says what).

Preparation of sentence. Sentence in the news should consist of 20-28 words. Increasingly shorter, more good. Readers have always loved words and writing concise.
5W1H: news pertanyaanwho complete answer (what), what (what), why (why), where (where), when (when), and how (how).

Lead: Opener news, news early manuscript after the title. Usually a summary of the most important information.

Headline: Title or the "focal point" in the content of posts (news). Avoid headline news in the form of interrogative sentence interrogative sentence because not convey information.

Angle: Angle of view (point of view) or a particular way of looking at an event.

Fact-checking: check (check) that the facts in the news is true, including the writing of the name, title, institution.

Basic guidelines for writing news above is just some of the more important guidelines in writing news. The most frequently infringed by a novice reporter and / or "amateur journalists" writing is a matter of tone.

Definiton and Variety of Mass Media

WHAT is imagined in your mind when you hear the word mass media (mass media)? TV, Radio, Magazines, Newspapers? You benaaaar .....!!! But wait, understanding, and kind of the mass media is not limited to that.

Various sources say, the mass media (commonly abbreviated as "media" only) is derived from the Latin and is the plural form of the word medium. Literally, meaning intermediate or medium of instruction - in this case an intermediary or an introductory message in the communication process.

The term popular in the world of media communication and education. In the field of communication, the media is a channel (channels) of communication. In the world of education, the media is a tool (tools) to support the teaching and learning process

Which we discuss in this post is the medium in terms of the mass media - means of mass communication.
Understanding Media By Language
English Dictionary generally defines media as a tool, a means, channels, intermediaries, tool path (of communications), and wasilah.

Dictionary Online Dictionary defines media as being related communication, the mass communication media such as magazines, radio, and television:
a plural of medium.
(Usually used with a plural verb) the means of communication, as radio and television, newspapers, and magazines, that reach or influence people Widely.
Online encyclopedia Wikipedia also defines the media associated with communication channels. "Tools used to store and deliver information or data". Tool to store and deliver information or data.

In Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), the media (me · he / media) is defined as follows:
tools (means) of communication such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, films, posters, and banners;
which lies between the two parties (people, groups, etc.): puppet can be used as a medium of education;
intermediaries; liaison;
nutrients containing protein, carbohydrates, salt, water, etc.. either liquid or compressed by adding gelatin to grow the bacteria, cells, or tissues of plants.
According Term Definition Media
Understanding the media according to the terms commonly associated with communication and education. Generally, when people refer to the media, then the question is the mass media, the mass communication media, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, and television.
We also know the term "media person", "media crew", or "the media". Which is none other than journalists or "the press".
According to Lexicon Communications, the media is "conveying the message that relates directly to the general public, such as the radio, television, and newspapers".
Characteristics of Mass Media
Not all media can be called mass media. Characteristics of the most popular mass media, among others:
Publicity. Disseminated to the public, the audience, or the people.
Universality. The message is general, about all aspects of life and all the events in a variety of places, also concerns the public interest and the target audience because a lot of people (the general public).
Periodicity. Fixed or periodic, such as daily or weekly, or broadcast a few hours per day.
Continuity. Continuous or continuous period in accordance with the schedule published or broadcast.
Actuality. Contains new things, such information or report the latest events, new tips, and so on. Actuality also means that the speed of delivery of information to the public.
Types of Mass Media
The types of mass media today broadly divided into three:
Print Media (Printed Media): Newspapers, Tabloid, Magazine.
Electronic Media (Electronic Media): Radio, Television, Film / Video
Cyber ​​Media (Cyber ​​Media): Website, News Portal, Blog, Social Media.
To communicate through the mass media (mass communication), expertise or skills (skills) to be held among other writing (writing skills), journalism, broadcasting / Announcing skills, editing, journalism language (language media), and editing photos, audio, and video.

June 18, 2014

About Public Service Ad

Let's begin our discussion about ad today. And now is time for public service ad.

What is public service ad? Public service Ad is a part of social marketing campaign that purposely offer an idea or premise for the sake of public and also for public service.

Usually in the form of public service advertising messages solicitation, statement, or an appeal to the people to do or not do an act in the public interest, or change behavior for the better good order. For example, is the cleanliness of the environment, encourages respect for differences of opinion, family planning, and so on.

Advertising social services also presents a social message that aims to raise public awareness of a problem that they face, the condition that can threaten the harmony and their lives in general. The message, in other words intended to provide an overview of the events and happenings that will result in a particular state. Whether they are positive or negative.

Early in its development, advertising people are not too attached to the arrangement of tight, intricate planning messages, the selection of appropriate media, until the determination of the target audience and the selection of the place and time that is really appropriate.

owever, as the development of the advertising world and the increasing number of companies are making public service announcements along with creating a paradigm shift in the social messages of public service ads should also be made professionally as a commercial advertisement.

June 17, 2014

About Corporate Ad

Today, let's talking about corporate ad. 

First, let's back to the definition of corporate ad, which is: An Ad that purposely made for image building of some company and in the end also build the positive image of products or service that company provided.

And now, we will explain more of corporate ad.

Corporate ad will be more effective if supported by strong and relevant fact with society, has a news value, and is usually associated with community-oriented activities. Corporate advertising is another form of advertising when a company's strategic campaign to communicate corporate values ​​to the public.

Corporate advertising often talked about the heritage values ​​of the company, the company's commitment to quality control, the launch of the trademark or logo of the new company, or communicate the company's concern for the environment.