May 19, 2016

Something Important About The Development Of Audience Study

The study of the audience was very affected by the changes and development of the media in every age. That fact led to the study of the audience continues to grow over time at a rapid pace, according to his time. Technology is also a consideration of audience studies, which is currently quite a lot of stuff. The different perspectives of each study umbrella on the traditions and the paradigm of the audience. Some of the objectives of audience research is: a form of media evaluation from the perspective of the audience, the audience knows the motives in choosing and using the media, find the audience interpretation of the meaning, as well as exploring the context of the use of media.

There are five in the tradition of audience research formulated by Jensen and Rosengren (1990): study of the effect (effect), the uses and gratifications, literary criticism, cultural studies, and analysis of reception (reception analysis). The tradition was later simplified it in three large studies of audiences: structural tradition, behaviourist tradition, and cultural tradition-reception analysis. Structural tradition takes the standpoint of the mass media as a researcher. This study aims to meet the needs of the mass media in identifying audience. With that goal, a lot of research is quantitative. While behaviourist tradition examines the effects and use of media on audiences. Research on the effects of media put the audience as individuals who passively receive media messages. While research on media usage puts the audience as individuals who are active in processing media messages.

While the analysis is the study of audience reception itself fairly new and still young. The theoretical base of the analysis of the reception is the opinion of the Hall that the meaning of the text media is not attached to the text of the media, but was created in the interaction between audiences with text.

According to Hadi, the reception tried to give an understanding of the meaning of the text on the understanding of media (print, electronic, and Internet) to understand how the media text characters readable by the audience. That opinion is also in line with Bertrand and Hughes, they say that the reception is a study of an active audience, the audience is able to selectively interpret and select the meaning of a text based on social and cultural position they have. Of the two opinions, we can say that the analysis of the reception is a study on decoding the message carried by the audience. This decoding concept refers to the concept introduced by Stuart Hall about decoding and encoding. Media encodes ideas which will then be decoded by the audience.

McQuail provides provisions regarding the reception analytical studies are:

1. The media should essentially be read and interpreted through public perception. With the meaning that would differ from each other, depending on how the background of the individual. The result is the meaning of the text media can not be predicted and are polisemis.

2. The analysis focuses on the process of reception of meaning from media messages received by the audience. The process is important keywords in the study analysis receptions, as well as a core of this research. The process will lead researchers at the reception formed by the community of a media message.

3. The use of media is based on the position of the audience as a community and not as a mass society. Messages from the media here will be interpreted by the audience after going through a process of interaction with their social circle.

4. Audience as a society have a stake in the media discourse and meaning framework. Audiences are not just a passive society resigned just received the message conveyed by the media, but also have the bargaining power to process the messages given by the media.

5. Audiences can not be said passive or equivalent. Audience reception research is active audiences are free to read and interpret messages according to their socio-cultural background, or in accordance with their social circle.

6. Research on reception usually used qualitative research methods.
Thus, the key points of analysis that puts McQuail reception by the audience as an active community that has the power to interpret the message of the media. How can the message of meaning occurs usually depends on the socio-cultural backgrounds and social circles.

[1] McQuail. Op. Cit. Hal. 16
[2] Ido Prijana Hadi. 2008. Penelitian Khalayak dalam Perspektif Reception Analysis. Dalam jurnal ilmiah Scriptura.Vol.(2).No.1.Hal.1-7. Terarsip di:
[3] Ibid. Hal. 1-2

[4] Ina Bertrand & Peter Hughes. 2005. Media Research Methods: Audience, Institutions, Texts. New York. Palgrave Macmillan. Hal. 39.
[5] McQuail. Op.Cit. 19-20. 


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