Communication is a key of socialize

If you want to be known with other people, you have to socialize. And the main thing to socialize is a communication. A constant communication could make you fame, off course with the right step. Learn the way of communication here!

Practice your skill of communication

If you want to be a good communicator, the main thing you have to do is practice! Practice and practice!

Learn the right way of communication with suitable theory

Theory of communication is one thing you should learn if you want to be a good communicator

Learn Various model of communication

Communication has a lot of model. Learn it and use in the good timing.

Understanding context of communication

In some way, context of communication is a main thing about communication. Learn it!

November 10, 2009

The way of thinking speech arrangement

1. Timeline
Ideas are collected together by it’s relationship with the time. Suitable for informative speech that you want to ilustrate event or process which happen in some rarely time. The pattern is made based on time line.

2. Space
Fit for use if you want illustrate some place or object.
Eg : You speech about your journey to Southeast Asia
a. First you start from Bali, Indonesia
b. Second destination in Singapura
c. And the last destination to Malaysia

3. Topic
Is a topical pattern, which mean some ideas that collected by some conventional classification. Fit for informative speech. Here, topic is divided to sub topic or clear parts, based on topic reachable itself. Eg :
The power of government
a. Legislative controlled by congres
b. Executive controlled by President
c. Judicative controlled by Pengadilan

4. Kausal
Is a pattern that arrange content by hubungan sebab akibat. This causal relationships is related with why some events happen, which is factor that causing some effects. Fit for use if you want to making sure the audience about something that make other thing happen. In first section of speech, you can explain something that become the reason and in second section show the effects. Eg :
A. There is three main reason of hipertency :
a. A lot of salt improving tekanan darah
b. An ooverweight
c. Worried too much
B. There is three main effects of hipertency
a. gelisah improving
b. Heart improving
c. Short breath improving

5. Pattern of solve the problem
In this example you will talk about the problem that faced by a group, then giving an advice. Fit for persuasive speech. With this speech you can suggest to some problem that audience faced. In first section you explain the factor that make that problem appear, then in second section you show your suggest of solution about that problem. Eg :
A. Nuclear reactor making a lot of problem
a. The Kebocoran can put employer and society community life in danger.
b. Put environment in danger
B. Solution
a. Stop nuclear reactor developing
b. Close the nuclear reactor that already operate
c. Developing some alternative source

6. Motivated sequence
Developed by Alan H. Monroe. This pattern have 5 part : Care, need, satisfied, visualisation, and action. Can be used for all type of speech, is it informative or persuasive. Motivated sequence is a variant from problem solving with push to problem telling need and the satisfication of solution developing.
The last two parts in motivated sequence, visualisation and action only can be used in persuasive speech. Visualisation is aimed to explain the condition wich will happen, help the audience look to them self and feel satisfied from their act, proposing a plan which will give a satisfication to audience and in one time also asking for their agree. This is the complete explanation.

a. Care
The first step that you have to do in speech is to make audiences focus to the topic which will shown. If this step can be done well, so the audience will get excited and listen to what you say.

b. Need
You can show the need to audience. Make audiences realize about something that have to do or learn. This can be done by this way :
1) Telling them about need or problem that appear
2) Ilustrate that need with specific example
3) Make realizing of student become stronger and stronger
4) Show that the problem have a lot of effect in audiences life

c. Satisfied
Show your solution to satisfied the need that you show first. If you do this step well, the audience will believe with your information. There is some way to do that :
1. A statement and also example about what you want to audiences believes and do.
2. A statement from how or why you want audience to learn.

d. Visualisation
Stronger of audience feeling and belief. Help the audience to imagine about the situation that will they face if the need that you suggest can be satisfied. There is 2 way :
1) Show the benefit that audiences will get if your ideas is executed
2) Show the audience lost if they don’t do your suggest

e. Action
The last step is say to the audience exactly what they have to do in order to make the audience need can be done.

If your speech is informative purpose, you can stop in satisfied. Is your speech is persuative purpose in order to make believe become stronger. You have to reach visualisation step. And if your speech is persuative purpose to changing behavior, so you have to reach action step.


The systematic of writing Speech’s script
A. The way of thinking speech arrangement
B. The way of thinking speech arrangement (additional)
C. Draft
D. Arrange Model


Audit communication is a evaluation that done by deep about communication process and components, in interpersonal, work group, organization, or even mass.

And audit communication has following purpose, decided overload or under load. Judge information quality. Measure relations quality. Recognize the potential web. Identified Bottlenecks. Draw the patterns, climate, and culture of communication. Give recommendation to change company communication system.
Audit communication is better to do in this following time. First, if there is some program that lost it’s credibility. Then, if there is a need evaluation for a program. Then, if organization change is planned. And also if there is a worry between employers, and communication channel didn’t function much. And the last if there is some gossip that become controversy.
In audit of communication, there is 7 technique and method to be done. Interview, self-completion questionnaire, group discussion, Network analysis, communication diary, monitoring, critical incident technique.
And there is also some aspect that we need to think in audit of communication. That aspects is, the condition of communicator and communicant. Media / communication channel. Message / Information. Feedback. Communication environment ( time, place, structure, climate, etc )

November 02, 2009

Schema Theory

Theories of individuals as cognitive misers transport these ideas to our understanding of individual information processing. That is, theorist in this tradition look at the forms and structures that help individual process a wide variety of information about the social world in an efficient way. As Wicks (1992 : 119) states, "Schema Theory suggest that people are active are active processor of information and that schematic thinking derives from the need to organize thinking for the purpose of cognitive economy." Though a variety of theories have been developed to explain this process (e.g, theories of plan, scripts, episodes), we use schema theory as one representative way of looking at these concept (But see Mandler, 1984, for a much more specific interpretation of schema theory concept). In other words, as cognitive misers, we use a schema theory as a template for understanding this entire family of cognitive theories. There are two important issues to consider in understanding schema theory. The first issue is a first question of what and the second is a question of how or, in Arbib, Conklin, and Hill's (1987) words, the distinction between the representation and process aspects of schemas. That is, theories have considered both the content of cognitive schemas and the way those schemas are activated as we attempt to understand and behave in social world.

Schema theory in the communication discipline

The concept of schema theory are implicated in all our communicate behavior, for if we are to proceed in a variety of communication situations we must either draw on existing schemas for understanding or, perharps, develop new schemas that will be used in subsequent interaction.

Finally, research in mass communication has also relied on the concept of schemas for understanding communication processes.As Wicks (1992) argues, we have schemas not only for social interaction with others but also for various media channels and programmings.

Source : Katherine Miller : 2001

Communication Theories

Theories Of Communication Processes
-Theories Of Symbolic Organization
Schema Theory
Attribution Theory
Narrative theory
-Theories Of Message Production
Constructivist Theory
Action Assembly Theory
Planning and Goals
-Theories of Message Processing
Three Classic Model Of Persuasion
1. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
2. Theory of Reasoned Action
3. Social Judgement Theory
Elaboration likelihood model
Inoculation Theory
Problematic Integration Theory
-Theories of Discourse and Interaction
Speech act theory
Coordinated Management Of Meaning Theory
Communication accommodation Theory
Expectancy violation and interaction adaptation theories
-Theories Of Communication in developing relationships
social penetration theory
Uncertainty Reduction theory
-Theories Of communication in Ongoing Relationships
Relational systems theory : The palo-alto group
Theories of relational dialectics